APA is the referencing style of the American Psychological Association and is an author-date referencing system commonly used in Psychology.


These are the general guidelines on using the APA (6th edition) referencing style.  Always refer to the referencing guidelines provided by your department in the first instance.


For more information on the APA style see the following guide which is available in the Library:
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


This is also available to download for Kindle.


 APA reference list conventions

All lines after the first line of each reference list entry should be indented half an inch from the left margin. This is known as hanging indentation.

Example

Neville, C. (2016). The complete guide to referencing and

avoiding plagiarism. London: Open University Press.


 Reference a book using APA
 Reference a book with a single author using APA

Required elements

The sequence is: author family name, author initial(s), date of publication (in brackets), title of book (in italics), place of publication: publisher.

In the text

(Oliver, 2003)

In the reference list

Oliver, D. (2003). Constitutional reform in the United Kingdom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 Reference a book with multiple authors using APA

Required elements

The sequence is: author family name, author initial(s), date of publication (in brackets), title of book (in italics), place of publication: publisher.

In text

(Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2009)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al., with six or more authors, use the first name and et al. in all citations.

In reference

Saunders, M., Lewis, P & Thornhill, A., (2009). Research methods for business students. Harlow:  Prentice Hall.

 Reference an edited book using APA

Required elements

The sequence is: author family name of the chapter/ section , author initial(s), date of publication (in brackets), title of chapter/ section, In, editor initial(s), editor family name, (Ed.), title of book (in italics), page numbers of chapter/ section (in rpund brackets), place of publication: publisher.

In text

(Leites, 2013)

In reference

Leites, N. (2013). Transference interpretations only? In A.H. Esman (Ed.) Essential papers on transference (pp. 434-454). New York: New York Press.

 Reference a book with multiple editions using APA

Required elements

The sequence is: author family name, author initial(s), date of publication (in brackets), title of book (in italics). Edition of book in brackets. Place of publication: publisher.

In text

(Penner, 2008)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the name and et al., with six or more authors, use the name and et al. in all citations.

In reference

Penner, J. E. (2008). The law of trusts. (6th ed.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 Reference an ebook using APA

Required elements

Whole e-book:

Author, A. (date). Title of book. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx

Author, A. (date). Title of book. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxx

Chapter in an e-book:

Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx

Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). doi:xxxxxxxxxx

In text

(Kukol, 2008)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al., with six or more authors, use the first name and et al.in all citations.

Reference:

Kukol, A. (2008). Molecular modeling of proteins. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-59745-177-2


 Reference a journal article using APA
 Reference a print journal article using APA

Required elements

Family name of author, Initials., Year (in brackets). Title of article. Full Title of Journal (in italics), Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s).

In text

(Stickley, 2011)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al., with six or more authors, use the first name and et al. in all citations.

In reference

Stickley, A., (2011). Providing a law degree for the “real world. The Law Teacher, 45(1) 63-86.

 Reference an electronic journal article using APA

Required elements

Family name of author, Initials., Year (in brackets). Title of article. Full Title of Journal (in italics), Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s). DOI

When DOI is not available, Family name of author, Initials., Year(in brackets). Title of article. Full Title of Journal (in italics), Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s). Retrieved from URL

In text

(Stickley, 2011)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al. with six or more authors, use the first name and et al. in all citations.

In reference

Stickley, A., (2011). Providing a law degree for the “real world. The Law Teacher, 45(1) 63-86. DOI:10.1080/03069400.2011.546966


 Reference internet sources using APA
 Reference a website using APA

Required elements

Family name of author, Initials. Year, Month, Date published (in brackets). Title of page (in italics). Retrieved from URL

In text

(Nicholson, 2005)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al. with six or more authors, use the first name and et al. in all citations.

In reference

Nicholson, D. (2005, June 5). Soldiers on Pendle Hill. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/76/a4161476.shtml

 Reference a blog using APA

Required elements

Family name of author, Initials, Year, Date (in brackets). Title of blog in italics. [Web blog post]. Retrieved from URL

In text

(Bownds, 2018)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al. with six or more authors, use the first name and et al. in all citations

In reference

Bownds, D. (20148, November 01). Are you holding your breath? [Web blog post]. Retrieved from http://mindblog.dericbownds.net/2018/11/are-you-holding-your-breath.html

 Reference social media using APA

Required elements

Author/ organisation. (Year, Month day). Name of the page, content or caption of the post. [Content form e.g. Tweet, Facebook status update, photopgraph or video file]. Retreived from: URL

In text

(Psychology Today, 2018)

In reference

Psychology Today (2018, November 13). How singing can improve your mood and mental heallth. [Tweet]. Retrieved from: https://twitter.com/PsychToday/status/1062913329788637185


 Reference a newspaper article using APA

Required elements

Family name of author, Initials., (Year, date). Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper (in italics). pp page numbers and column line.

In text

Slapper, 2005
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al. with six or more authors, use the first name and et al. in all citations.

In reference

Slapper, G., (2005, September 3). Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times. p.4b


 Reference a report using APA
 Reference an online report using APA

Required elements

Author/Organisation, (Year). Full title of report (in italics). Place: Publisher. Retrieved from Agency name: URL

In text

(Department of Health, 2001)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al., with six or more authors, use the first name and et al. in all citations.

In reference

Department of Health (2001). National service framework for older people. London: Department of Health. Retrieved from Department of Health website: http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4071283.pdf

 Reference a print report using APA

Required elements

Author/Organisation, (Year). Full title of report (report No) in italics. Place: Publisher.

In text

(Department of Health, 2001)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al., with six or more authors, use the first name and et al.i n all citations.

In reference

Department of Health (2001). National service framework for older people. London: Department of Health.


 Reference a dvd or video using APA

Required elements

Producer(s), Director, Year, Title of the picture, Medium (VHS or DVD.), Location, Studio.

In text
(Chaffin, Kennedy, Marshall & Fincher, 2008)
If there are one or two authors always give both in every citation; with three - five authors, name them all in the first citation and in subsequent citations use the first name and et al., with six or more authors, use the first name and et al. in all citations.

In reference

Chaffin, C., Kennedy, K., Marshall, F. (Producers), & Fincher, D. (Director). (2008). The curious case of Benjamin Button [DVD]. United States: Warner Bros. Pictures





APA - External links

Online tutorial: The basics of APA style

APA style blog: Updated daily with more examples using APA (6th)

APA (6th) FAQ


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