Chicago is a running notes referencing system that uses footnotes. It is commonly used in the Humanities and Social Sciences. These examples will show you:

  • How to insert a reference in the body of your text
  • How to format your references in the footnotes
  • How to format your references in the bibliography

You can access the print copy of the Chicago manual of style in the Library.

 Inserting in-text citations using Chicago style

Footnotes should provide either the full details of the source, or sufficient summary details to enable the reader to identify the source in the bibliography/ reference list.

Full details of the source should be included the first time a source is cited, with a shortened version for subsequent uses. The full details must be included in the bibliography/ reference list.

For example:

Smith highlights the difficulties in conversation between a patient and a doctor. 1

First footnote

1. M.R. Hall, The Coroner (Basingstoke: Pan Books, 2009), 7-10.

Subsequent footnote

2. Hall, The Coroner, 12.

Reference

Hall, M.R. The Coroner. Basingstoke: Pan Books, 2009.


The first footnote gives details of the publication, including the author's initials (or first name if listed) followed by their last name. It includes the pages to which the citation refers, for example, 7-10. Any subsequent citations only need to include the author's last name and the title along with the page number. Where the title is less than five words it shouldn't be shortened. Longer titles can be shortened (for example, J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix could be shortened to 'Rowling, Order of the Phoenix'). For more information about the format of footnotes, see Chapter 14 of the Chicago Manual of Style Online

 Formatting a bibliography or reference list in Chicago style

The bibliography will list all resources alphabetically by author's surname. You may be asked to split your bibliography into sections such as primary and secondary materials; see the guidance from your lecturer/ department on this.

The first author's name is inverted in the bibliography with the surname appearing first. e.g. McClintock, Russell. Any subsequent author's names should be presented with their first name/ initial and then last name.


If the reference runs over to two lines or more, the second and subsequent lines of the reference should be indented.


The elements in a bibliography entry are separated by a stop, rather than by a comma.


Example

Fraser, James, Karen Shaw and Sarah Ruston. "Academic Library Collaboration in Supporting Students Pre-Induction: The Head Start Project." New Review of Academic Librarianship 19, issue 2

(2013): 125-140.

 Using Ibid. in footnotes in Chicago style

'Ibid.' is a shortened form of the word Ibidem, meaning 'in the same place'. It can be used in the Chicago style of referencing where a source is cited multiple times, where it is referring to the source directly preceding the footnote.

Ibid. is used in the footnote were the preceding source is identical (except for the page number), for example

3. Paul Ray. The surrealist movement in England (New York: Cornell University Press, 1971), 15.

4. Ibid., 17-18.

 Citing quotations in Chicago style

When directly quoting from another person's work, you can:

  • Include it as part of your sentence where the quote is less than three lines of text or two lines of poetry.
  • Format as an indented block quotation where there are more than three lines of text or two lines of poetry.
  • In the footnote include the page number(s), or the line number(s) for lines of poetry or a play script.

Example of a short quotation

Always use double quotation marks to enclose a short quotation, for example:

Pear and Shields state "There is no need to reference things which are considered common knowledge." 5

Footnote

5. Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide, 10th ed. (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan), 3.


Example of a longer quotation

For longer quotations, quotation marks are not used, instead use block quotation and clearly indent the quote. For example:

Pears and Shields comment that:

Referencing is the process of acknowledging other people's work, when you have used it in your assignment or research. It allows the reader to locate other source material as quickly and easily as possible so that they can read these sources themselves and verify the validity of your arguments. referencing provides the link between what you write and the evidence on which it is based.

Footnote

7. Richard Pears and Graham Shields, Cite Them Right: The Essential Referencing Guide, 10th ed. (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan), 1.

 Referencing sources with more than one author in Chicago style

For sources with one, two or three authors you should give all names in the footnote and in your reference list/ bibliography. In the reference list/ bibliography, the first listed author is presented last name first, then first name/ initial. Any subsequent author(s) should be presented with their first name/ initial and then last name. For example,

Footnote

9. James Fraser, Karen Shaw and Sarah Ruston, "Academic Library Collaboration in Supporting Students Pre-Induction: The Head Start Project," New Review of Academic Librarianship 19, issue 2 (2013): 125.

Bibliography/ reference list

Fraser, James, Karen Shaw and Sarah Ruston. "Academic Library Collaboration in Supporting Students Pre-Induction: The Head Start Project." New Review of Academic Librarianship 19, issue 2

(2013): 125-140.


For sources with four or more authors you should give the name of the first author in the footnote, followed by et al. All named authors should be listed in the bibliography/ reference list, for example,

10. Sarah Moore et al. The Ultimate Study Skills Handbook. Maidenhead: OU Press, 2010.

 Reference a book using Chicago style
 Reference a print book using Chicago style

 In the text

Cite your sources by referring the reader to a footnote containing information about the source used using numbers set as superscript.

Example

As McClintock observes; “The result was a self-fulfilling prophecy: the more forcefully the South defended slavery’s rights against perceived Northern attacks, the more Northerners came to resent Southern power and speak out against slavery.” 1

 In the footnotes

Required elements

Author first name author last name, Title, Edition (if it is not the first edition) (Place of Publication: Publisher, year of publication), page reference.

Example

1. Russell McClintock, Lincoln and the Decision for War : The Northern Response to Secession (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008), 25.

 In the bibliography

Required elements

Author last name, first name (subsequent authors are listed first name last name). Title. Edition (if not the first). (Place of publication:Publisher, date of publication).

Example

Witt, John Fabian. Lincoln’s code : the laws of war in American history. (New York: Free Press, 2012). 

Format of authors:

For books with multiple authors, only the first name listed is inverted in the bibliography entry. List all of the authors names in the order that they appear on the title page. 

First names can be used in place of initials. For authors who always use initials, full names should not be listed (eg. P.D. James, H.G. Wells). Degrees or affiliations listed after an authors’ name on a title page are omitted. 

Examples:

  • Book with a single author, first edition or no edition given:

Witt, John Fabian. Lincoln’s code : the laws of war in American history. New York: Free Press, 2012.

  • Book with a single author, multiple editions:

Donald, David. Lincoln reconsidered : essays on the Civil War era. 2nd ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1989. 

 Reference an ebook using Chicago style
 In the text

Cite your sources by referring the reader to a footnote containing information about the source used used using numbers set as superscript.

Example

As McClintock observes; “The result was a self-fulfilling prophecy: the more forcefully the South defended slavery’s rights against perceived Northern attacks, the more Northerners came to resent Southern power and speak out against slavery.” 1

 In the footnotes

When referring to an electronic source such as an ebook, Chicago recommends that you provide a URL or a doi. A doi is a digital object identifier. Many ejournal articles have doi's. For more information about doi's, see www.doi.org. The URL or doi should be the final element of your reference.

Required elements

Author first name author last name, Title, Edition (if it is not the first edition) (Place of Publication: Publisher, year of publication), page reference. URL or doi


Example

1.Mark E. Neely Jr. Lincoln and the Triumph of the Nation: Constitutional Conflict in the American Civil War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011), 113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5149/9780807869024_neely


If citing a chapter in an edited ebook, the required elements are:

Chapter author first name, last name, "Title of chapter" in Book title, ed. editor(s) first name, editor(s) last name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year of publication), page reference. URL or doi

Example

2. Susan Chase Hall, "War battlefields for future generations : the relationship between battlefield preservation and popular culture" in The Civil War in popular culture : memory and meaning, ed. Lawrence A. Kreiser Jr. and Randal Allred (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky), 88. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5hk09q


For ebooks that have been downloaded to a device such as a Kindle, rather than read online, see this guidance from the Chicago Manual of Style Online

 In the bibliography

Required elements

Author or editor last name, first name. Title. Edition (if not the first). Volume (if applicable). Series title (if applicable). (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication). Page numbers (if applicable). URL or doi

Example

Neely, Mark Jr. Lincoln and the Triumph of the Nation: Constitutional Conflict in the American Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011. 113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5149/9780807869024_neely

If the reference runs over to two lines or more, the second and subsequent lines of the reference should be indented.

Format of authors:

For books with multiple authors, only the first name listed is inverted in the bibliography entry. List all of the authors names in the order that they appear on the title page. 

Authors names are used as they appear on the title page of the book. First names can be used in place of initials. For authors who always use initials, full names should not be listed (eg. P.D. James, H.G. Wells). Degrees or affiliations listed after an authors’ name on a title page are omitted. 

Examples:

  • Book with a single author, first edition or no edition given:

Taylor, Amy Murrell. The Divided Family in Civil War America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5149/9780807899076_taylor

  • Book with a single author, multiple editions:

Gray, Richard. A history of American Literature. 2nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. http://lib.myilibrary.com/Open.aspx?id=328319

 Reference a chapter of an edited book using Chicago style
 In the footnote

Required elements

Chapter author first name last name, "Chapter title" in Book Title, ed. Editor (Place of Publication: Publisher, year of publication), page number.

Example

2. Susan Chase Hall, "War battlefields for future generations : the relationship between battlefield preservation and popular culture" in The Civil War in popular culture : memory and meaning, ed. Lawrence A. Kreiser Jr. and Randal Allred (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002), 88.

 In the bibliography

Required elements

Chapter author last name, first name, "Chapter title" in Book Title, edited by editor first name, editor last name, page range. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

Example

Chase Hall, Susan. "War battlefields for future generations : the relationship between battlefield preservation and popular culture" in The Civil War in popular culture : memory and

meaning, edited by Kreiser, Lawrence and Randal Allred, 88-94. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002.

 Referencing a chapter of an edited ebook using Chicago style
 In the footnote

Required elements

Chapter author first name last name, "Title of chapter" in Book title, ed. editor(s) first name, editor(s) last name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year of publication), page reference. URL or DOI

Example

2. Susan Chase Hall, "War battlefields for future generations : the relationship between battlefield preservation and popular culture" in The Civil War in popular culture : memory and

meaning, ed. Lawrence A. Kreiser Jr. and Randal Allred (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky), 88. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5hk09q

 In the bibliography

Required elements

Chapter author last name, first name, "Title of chapter" in Book title, ed. editor(s) first name, editor(s) last name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year of publication), page reference. URL or DOI

Example

Chase Hall, Susan. "War battlefields for future generations : the relationship between battlefield preservation and popular culture" in The Civil War in popular culture : memory and

meaning. ed. Lawrence A. Kreiser Jr. and Randal Allred (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky), 88-94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt5hk09q



 Referencing a print journal article using Chicago style
 In the footnote

Required elements

Author first name author last name, "Title of article," Title of journal Volume number, issue number (Year of publication): page reference.

Example

1.Tony Venezia, "Surrealism, Science Fiction and Comics," Science Fiction Studies 38, no 2 (2011): 380.

 In the bibliography/ reference list

Required elements

Author last name, author first name. "Title of article." Title of journal Volume number, issue number (Year of publication): page span.

For example

Venezia, T. "Surrealism, Science Fiction and Comics." Science Fiction Studies 38, no 2 (2011): 380-381.

 Referencing an electronic journal article using Chicago style
 In the footnote

Required elements

Author first name author last name, "Title of article," Title of Journal Volume number, no.issue number (Year of publication): page reference, doi:

OR

Author first name author last name, "Title of article," Title of Journal Volume number, no.issue number (Year of publication): page reference, accessed Month day, year, URL

Examples

4. Choo Ting Siew et al., "A Specialist peer Mentoring Programme for University Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Pilot Study," PLoS ONE 12, no.7 (2017): 2, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180854.

OR

4. Choo Ting Siew et al., "A Specialist peer Mentoring Programme for University Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Pilot Study," PLoS ONE 12, no.7 (2017): 2, accessed: December 20, 2018,

https://onesearch.lancaster-university.uk/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_doaj_soai_doaj_org_article_e2f53212e0c148228a008c0a9c4eb80f&context=PC&vid=LUL_VU1&search_scope=PrimoCentral&tab=articles&lang=en_US

 In the bibliography/ reference list

Required elements

Author first name author last name. "Title of article." Title of Journal Volume number, no.issue number (Year of publication): page range. doi:

OR

Author first name author last name. "Title of article." Title of Journal Volume number, no.issue number (Year of publication): page range. Accessed Month day, year. URL

Examples

Choo Ting Siew et al. "A Specialist peer Mentoring Programme for University Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Pilot Study." PLoS ONE 12, no.7 (2017): 1-18. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180854.

OR

Choo Ting Siew et al., "A Specialist peer Mentoring Programme for University Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Pilot Study," PLoS ONE 12, no.7 (2017): 2, accessed: December 20, 2018, https://onesearch.lancaster-university.uk/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_doaj_soai_doaj_org_article_e2f53212e0c148228a008c0a9c4eb80f&context=PC&vid=LUL_VU1&search_scope=PrimoCentral&tab=articles&lang=en_US


 Referencing newspaper articles using Chicago style
 In the footnote

Required elements

Author first name author last name, "Title of article," Title of Newspaper Month day, year (Year of publication): page reference, doi:

OR

 In the bibliography/ reference list