Harvard is an author-date referencing system and is commonly used in a wide range of disciplines.

There is no definitive guide to Harvard style. The elements of a Harvard reference and their order are standard, but there are variations in punctuation and formatting.  Lancaster University Library have created a guide to using Harvard for Lancaster students but you must also consult your module handbook for guidance on any department-specific referencing requirements.

These pages will give you a brief introduction to referencing a range of sources using Harvard.  There is also a detailed online guide to Harvard (Lancaster University Library) on the Library website or you can download a copy: Harvard (Lancaster University Library).

 Reference a book using Harvard

In the text

Cite your sources by putting the author's family name and the year of publication into round brackets:

·         Some commentators have argued (Penner, 2010) ...

·         It has been concluded that a "strong preference for political rather than legal and judicial control mechanisms" (Oliver, 2003, p. 383) ...


In the reference list

Required elements:

Family name of author, Initial(s). Year of publication (in brackets) Title of book (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher.


Examples:

Book with a single author

Oliver, D. (2003) Constitutional reform in the United Kingdom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Book with multiple authors

Slapper, G. & Kelly, D. (2006) The English legal system. London: Cavendish.

 

Book with multiple editors

Sullivan, D. H. & Fidell, E. R. (eds.) (2002) Evolving military justice. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

 

Book with multiple editions

Cruttenden, A. (2014) Gimson's Pronunciation of English. 8th ed. Abingdon: Routledge.


 Reference a chapter of an edited book using Harvard

In text

(Magg, 2002)


In the reference list

Required elements:

Family name of author of chapter, Initial(s). Year of publication (in brackets) Title of chapter. In Family name of editor(s) of book, Initial(s). (eds.) Title of book (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher.


Example:

Magg, J. (2002) Judicial review of the Manual for Courts Martial. In Sullivan, D. H. & Fidell, E. R. (eds.) Evolving military justice. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.


 Reference an ebook using Harvard

In text

(Kukol, 2008)

In the reference list

Required elements:


Family name of author, Initial(s). Year (in brackets) Title of book (in italics). [Online]. E-book provider. Available at: URL

Example:

Kukol, A. (ed.) (2008) Molecular modelling of proteins. [Online]. Springer. Available at: http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-59745-177-2


 Reference a journal article using Harvard

Print journal article required elements:

In text

(Day, 2011)

In the reference list

Required elements:

Family name of author, Initial(s). Year (in brackets) Title of article. Full Title of Journal (in italics), Volume number(Issue/Part number), Page number(s).

Example:

Day, D. (2011) Kinship and community in Victorian London: the ‘Beckwith Frogs’. History Workshop Journal, 71(1), 194-218.


Electronic journal article required elements:

In text

(Stickley, 2011)

In the reference list

Required elements:

Family name of author, Initial(s). Year (in brackets) Title of article. Full Title of Journal (in italics), Volume number(Issue/Part number), Page number(s). Name of provider. [Accessed date].

Example:

Stickley, A. (2011) Providing a law degree for the “real world”. The Law Teacher, 45(1), 63-86. Swetwise. [Accessed 29 May 2014].


 Reference a website using Harvard

In text

(Nicholson, 2005)


In the reference list

Required elements:

Family name of author, Initial(s). Year (in brackets) Title of page (in italics). Available at: URL [Accessed date].

Example:

Nicholson, D. (2005) Soldiers on Pendle Hill. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/76/a4161476.shtml [Accessed 29 May 2014].


 Reference a report using Harvard

Print report required elements:

In text

(Department of Health, 2001)

In the reference list

Required elements:

Author/Organisation Year (in brackets) Full title of report (in italics). Place: Publisher.

Example:

Department of Health (2001) National service framework for older people. London: Department of Health.

 

Online report required elements:

In text

(Department of Health, 2001)

In the reference list

Required elements:

Author/Organisation Year (in brackets) Full title of report (in italics). [type of medium] Place: Publisher. Available at: URL [Accessed date].

Example:

Department of Health. (2001) National service framework for older people. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/198033/National_Service_Framework_for_Older_People.pdf [Accessed 12 September 2011].


 Reference a thesis or dissertation using Harvard

In text

(Casey, 2012)

In the reference list

Required elements:

Family name of author, Initial(s). Year (in brackets) Title of dissertation /thesis (in italics). Level. Official name of University.

Example:

Casey, S. (2012) Drawing the delicate. Ph.D. Lancaster University.


 Reference a conference paper using Harvard

In text

(Johnston, 1989)

In the reference list

Required elements:

Family name of author, Initial(s). Year (in brackets). Full title of conference paper (in italics). In: Name of society or association organising conference, Full title of conference. Location, Date. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Johnston, K. R. (1989) From revolution to revelation. In: University of Lancaster, International Conference on Romanticism and Revolution. University of Lancaster, July 5-8, 1989. Lancaster: University of Lancaster.


 Reference a blog using Harvard

In text

(Beaumont, 2017)

In the reference list

Required elements

Family name of author, Initial(s). Year (in brackets) Title of blog (in italics). Available at: URL [Accessed date].

Example:

Beaumont, R. (2017) Making group-work work. Available at: http://wp.lancs.ac.uk/studyblog/2017/05/26/making-group-work-work/ [Accessed 12 February 2018].












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