Vancouver is a numerical referencing system and is commonly used in Medicine and the Sciences. 

Note : These are general guidelines on using the Vancouver referencing style based on the  NLM Style Guide Always refer to the referencing guidelines provided by your department in the first instance.

 Reference a book using Vancouver
 Reference a print book using Vancouver
 Required elements

Author/Editor. Title. Edition if applicable. Secondary Authors/Editors if applicable. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of publication. (Series if applicable)

e.g.

Stenhouse L. Anatomy. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Mosby; 2012.

Format of authors/editors:

  • List the authors names in the order that they appear in the text
  • Use initials for first and middle names of the authors, up to a maximum of two initials
  • Do not use periods/stops between initals. e.g. JB not J.B.
  • Separate names of authors using a comma and a space. e.g. Woods A, Frazier BR, Jones C
  • Use et al. for the seventh and subsequent authors

Format of secondary authors/editors:

  • Secondary authors can include series editors, translators and illustrators. 
  • List the secondary authors in the same surname/initial format as the main authors.
  • List the secondary authors in the order that they appear in the text
  • List the role of the secondary authors at the end of each group e.g. Patten M, Morgan NM, editors; Fielding LJ, illustrator.

Format of series:

  • A book may be one volume in a series.
  • List the details of the series in brackets at the end of the reference after the date of publication.
  • List the name of the series first, then a semicolon, then the Volume or issue number of that book in the series.

Examples:

  • Book with a single author, first edition or no edition given:

    Hartwig WC. Fundamental anatomy. Baltimore: Kluwer: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.

  • Book with a single author, multiple editions:

    Stenhouse L. Anatomy. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Mosby; 2012.

  • Book with multiple authors:

    Allison MEM, McDonald SW. Core clinical cases : self-assessment for  medical students : anatomy and physiology. Knutsford: PasTest; 2008.

  • Edited book with a single editor:

    Jones DJ, editor. ABC of colorectal diseases. 2nd ed. London: BMJ Books; 1999.   

  • Edited book with multiple editors in a series:

    Burnstock G, Sillito AM, editors. Nervous control of the eye. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic; 2000. (The autonomic nervous system ; v.13)  

  • Book with secondary authors/editors:

    Netter FH. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 4th ed. Brueckner JK, Carmichael SW, Gest TR, Granger NA, Hansen JT, Walji AH, consulting editors. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2006

 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

1.Hartwig WC. Fundamental anatomy. Baltimore: Kluwer: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.

2.Stenhouse L. Anatomy. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Mosby; 2012

3.Netter FH. Atlas of Human Anatomy. 4th ed. Brueckner JK, Carmichael SW, Gest TR, Granger NA, Hansen JT, Walji AH, consulting editors. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2006

4.Allison MEM, McDonald SW. Core clinical cases : self-assessment for  medical students : anatomy and physiology. Knutsford: PasTest; 2008.

5.Burnstock G, Sillito AM, editors. Nervous control of the eye. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic; 2000. (The autonomic nervous system ; v.13)

 Reference an ebook using Vancouver
 Required elements

Author/Editor. Title [Medium]. Edition if applicable. Secondary Authors/Editors if applicable. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of citation]. Availability.

e.g.

Stenhouse L. Anatomy [Internet]. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Mosby; 2012 [Cited 2014 May 22]. Available from: https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9780723437727 

  • When referencing an Ebook use [Internet] in the Medium field
  • For the Date of Citation use the order: year > month > day. e.g. [cited 2014 May 8]
  • For the availability field use the text "Available from" followed by a colon and a space. Then enter the full URL of the ebook.
  • List the authors names in the order that they appear in the text
  • Use initials for first and middle names of the authors, up to a maximum of two initials
  • Do not use periods/stops between initals. e.g. JB not J.B.
  • Separate names of authors using a comma and a space. eg. Woods A, Frazier BR, Jones, C
 In the text
 Click here to expand...

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list
  1. Moore KL, Dalley AF, Agur AM. Clinically oriented anatomy [Internet]. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health; 2014 [Cited 2014 May 11]. Available from: http://lwwhealthlibrary.com/Content/Book/TableOfContents.aspx?rid=10110             
  2. Drake RL, Gray H, Vogl W, Mitchell AW. Gray's anatomy for students [Internet]. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2009 [Cited 2014 May 4]. Available from: http://elsevieruk.pdn.ipublishcentral.com/product/grays-anatomy-for-students  
  3. Des Jardins T. Cardiopulmonary anatomy & physiology: essentials for respiratory care [Internet]. 4th ed. Australia, Albany: Delmar/Thomson Learning; 2002 [Cited 2014 May 4]. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=70701&site=ehost-live


 Reference a journal article using Vancouver
 Reference a print journal article using Vancouver
 Required elements

Author. Article Title. Journal Title. Date of Publication; Volume Number (Issue Number): Pagination.

eg.

Monson DM, Smith JR, Klein ML, Wilson DJ. Clinicopathologic correlation of retinal angiomatous proliferation. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Dec;126(12):1664-8

  • List the authors names in the order that they appear in the text
  • Use initials for first and middle names of authors, up to a maximum of two initials
  • Do not use periods/stops between initals e.g. JB not J.B.
  • Separate names of authors using a comma and a space e.g. Woods A, Frazier BR, Jones, C
  • Use et al. for the seventh and subsequent authors
  • List the date of publication in the order of year > month > day. eg. 2012 Aug 1
  • In the date, abbreviate the month to the first three letters e.g. Jan, Feb
  • If there are a large number of authors, use et al. for the seventh and subsequent authors

Examples:

  • Journal article with multiple authors but less than seven

    Gaal L, Roska B, Picaud SA, Wu SM, Marc R, Weblin FS. Postsynaptic response kinetics are controlled by a glutamate transporter at cone photoreceptors. J of Neurophysiol. 1998 Jan 1; 79:190–196.


  • Journal article with seven or more authors

    Balashov SP, Petrovskaya LE, Imasheva ES, Lukashev EP, Dioumaev AK, Wang JM et al. Breaking the Carboxyl Rule: Lysine 96 facilitates reprotonation of the Schiff base in the photocycle of a retinal protein from Exiguobacterium Sibiricum. J of Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 19; 288:21254-21265.

  emptyString NOTE:  I f  you have used the electronic version of the journal, cite the electronic version

 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

  1. Higgs MH, Lukasiewicz, PD. Glutamate uptake limits synaptic excitation of retinal ganglion cells. J of Neurosci. 1999 May 15; 19(10): 3691-700
  2. Gaal L, Roska B, Picaud SA, Wu SM, Marc R, Weblin FS. Postsynaptic response kinetics are controlled by a glutamate transporter at cone photoreceptors. J of Neurophysiol. 1998 Jan 1; 79:190–196.
  3. Balashov SP, Petrovskaya LE, Imasheva ES, Lukashev EP, Dioumaev AK, Wang JM et al. Breaking the Carboxyl Rule: Lysine 96 facilitates reprotonation of the Schiff base in the photocycle of a retinal protein from Exiguobacterium Sibiricum. J of Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 19; 288:21254-21265.
 Reference an electronic journal article using Vancouver
 Required elements

Author. Article Title. Journal Title [Type of Medium]. Date of Publication [Date of Citation]; Volume Number (Issue Number): Pagination. Availability

Eg.

Hinton DR, He S, Lopez PF. Apoptosis in Surgically Excised Choroidal Neovascular Membranes in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol [Internet]. 1998 Feb [cited 2014 June 2];116(2):203-209. Available from:  http://archopht.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=261601

emptyString NOTE: Vancouver style uses abbreviated journal titles, eg. Arch Opthalmol for Archives of Opthalmology. See the NLM Abbreviations Guide for details on standard abbreviations.

  • When referencing an Electronic Journal Article use [Internet] in the Type of Medium field
  • For the Date of Citation use the order: year > month > day. eg. [cited 2014 Feb 8]
  • For the availability field use the text "Available from" followed by a colon and a space. Then enter the full URL or doi.
  • List the authors names in the order that they appear in the text
  • Use initials for first and middle names of the authors, up to a maximum of two initials
  • Do not use periods/stops between initals. JB not J.B.
  • Separate names of authors using a comma and a space. eg. Woods A, Frazier BR, Jones, C
  • If there are a large number of authors, use et al. for the seventh and subsequent authors.

Examples:

  • Electronic journal article with multiple authors but less than seven:

    Monson DM, Smith JR, Klein ML, Wilson DJ. Clinicopathologic correlation of retinal angiomatous proliferation. Arch Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2008 Dec [cited 2014 May 28];126(12):1664-8. Available from:  http://archopht.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=420891


  • Electronic journal article with seven or more authors:

            Neelam K, Hogg RE, Stevenson MR, Johnston E, Anderson R, Beatty S, et al. Carotenoids and co-antioxidants in age-related maculopathy: design and methods. Ophthalmic Epidemiol [Internet]. 2008 Nov-Dec [cited 2014 June 14];15(6):389-401. Available from:  http://doi.dx/10.1080/09286580802154275

 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

  1. Hinton DR, He S, Lopez PF. Apoptosis in Surgically Excised Choroidal Neovascular Membranes in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol [Internet]. 1998 Feb [cited 2014 June 2];116(2):203-209. Available from:  http://archopht.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=261601
  2. Monson DM, Smith JR, Klein ML, Wilson DJ. Clinicopathologic correlation of retinal angiomatous proliferation. Arch Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2008 Dec [cited 2014 May 28];126(12):1664-8. Available from:  http://archopht.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=420891
  3. Neelam K, Hogg RE, Stevenson MR, Johnston E, Anderson R, Beatty S, et al. Carotenoids and co-antioxidants in age-related maculopathy: design and methods. Ophthalmic Epidemiol [Internet]. 2008 Nov-Dec [cited 2014 June 14];15(6):389-401. Available from:  http://doi.dx/10.1080/09286580802154275


 Reference online sources using Vancouver
 Reference a website using Vancouver
 Required elements

Homepage:

Author. Title [Type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of update/revision; Date of citation]. Availability.

eg

Faculty of Science and Technology [Internet]. Bailrigg, Lancaster: Lancaster University [Updated 2014 19 June; Cited 2014 June 24]. Available at: http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/sci-tech/ (There is no author in this example so the author field has been omitted)

  • When referencing a website use [Internet] in the Type of Medium field
  • For the Date of Citation use the order: year > month > day. eg. [cited 2014 Feb 8]
  • For the availability field use the text "Available from" followed by a colon and a space. Then enter the full URL.
  • Where there is no publication date, no copyright date and no update date use the Citation date only.

Other pages of a website:

Title of Homepage [Type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication of homepage. Title of part. Date of publication of part [Date of citation of part]; [location or pagination of part]. Availability. 

eg

www.bbc.co.uk [Internet] London: British Broadcasting Corporation; c2014. BBC Trust: Charter and Agreement. c2014 [Cited 2014 July 7]; [2 screens]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbctrust/governance/regulatory_framework/charter_agreement.html 

Video on a website:

Title of Homepage [Type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication of homepage. [Video], Title of video; Date of video [Date of update; Date of citation]; [Duration of video]. Availability. 

eg

YouTube [Internet]. Place unknown: NHS England; c2014. [Video], Better information means better care; 20 Jan [cited 2014 June 16]; [1 min, 56 sec]. Available from: http://youtu.be/3Pkb65rwZVI

 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:


1. Faculty of Science and Technology [Internet]. Bailrigg, Lancaster: Lancaster University [Updated 2014 19 June; Cited 2014 June 24]. Available at: http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/sci-tech/ 

2. www.bbc.co.uk [Internet] London: British Broadcasting Corporation; c2014. BBC Trust: Charter and Agreement. c2014 [Cited 2014 July 7]; [2 screens]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbctrust/governance/regulatory_framework/charter_agreement.html 

3. YouTube [Internet]. Place unknown: NHS England; c2014. [Video], Better information means better care; 20 Jan [cited 2014 June 16]; [1 min, 56 sec]. Available from: http://youtu.be/3Pkb65rwZVI

 Reference a blog using Vancouver
 Required elements

Author. Title [Type of medium]. Place of publication: Publisher. Date of publication [Date of citation]. Availability.

eg

Bradley P. Phil Bradley's Weblog [blog on the internet]. [Place unknown]: Phil Bradley. 2014 June 30 [Cited 2014 July 1]. Available from: http://www.philbradley.typepad.com/

  • When referencing a blog use [blog on the internet] in the Type of medium field
  • Where the place of publication is not listed on the blog, use [place unknown].
  • For the publisher, use the owner of the blog in the format: forename, surname. 
  • For the Date of Citation use the order: year > month > day. e.g. [cited 2014 May 8]
  • For the availability field use the text "Available from" followed by a colon and a space. Then enter the full URL of the ebook.
  • List the authors names in the order that they appear in the text
  • Use initials for first and middle names of the authors, up to a maximum of two initials
  • Do not use periods/stops between initals. e.g. JB not J.B.
  • Separate names of authors using a comma and a space. eg. Woods A, Frazier BR, Jones, C
 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

1. Bradley P. Phil Bradley's Weblog [blog on the internet]. [Place unknown]: Phil Bradley. 2014 June 30 [Cited 2014 July 1]. Available from: http://www.philbradley.typepad.com/

2. Webber S. Information Literacy Weblog [blog on the internet]. [Sheffield]: Sue Webber. 2005-. Developing Digital Literacies for a Digital World: presentations. 2014 July 1 [Cited 2014 July 3]; [1 screen]. Available from: http://information-literacy.blogspot.co.uk/2014/07/developing-digital-literacies-for.html


 Reference a thesis using Vancouver
 Required elements

The following elements are required to reference a thesis using Vancouver. 

Author. Title [Content Type]. [Place of publication]: Publisher; Date. Total number of pages.

eg

Smith, NI. A corpus-based investigation of recent change in the use of the progressive in British English [Thesis]. Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University; 2005. p.271.

 Electronic theses

Online theses are referenced in the same format as a print thesis, but with the following exceptions/additions.

Author. Title [Content Type]. [Place of publication]: Publisher; Date [Date of citation]. Total number of pages. Availability. 

eg

Kavanagh AJ. Energy deposition in the lower auroral ionosphere through energetic particle precipitation [Thesis on the internet]. [Lancaster, UK]: Department of Communication Systems, Lancaster University; 2002 [Cited 2014 July 1]. p.308. Available from: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/6758/

 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

1. Anuar A. A study of dusty plasma environment [Thesis on the internet]. [Lancaster, UK]: Department of Physics, Lancaster University; 2013 [Cited 2014 June 14]. p.208. Available from: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/69145/

2. Kavanagh AJ. Energy deposition in the lower auroral ionosphere through energetic particle precipitation [Thesis on the internet]. [Lancaster, UK]: Department of Communication Systems, Lancaster University; 2002 [Cited 2014 July 1]. p.308. Available from: http://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/6758/ 

3. Lerner R. S-inflation:a testable, minimal model of inflation and dark matter [Thesis]. [Lancaster, UK]: Department of Physics, Lancaster University; 2010. p.122.

 Reference a DVD or video using Vancouver
 Required elements

Author. Title [Type of medium]. Secondary author. Place of publication: Publisher; Date. Extent. Physical description.

eg 

Kubrick S. 2001: a space odyssey. [videodisc]. London: Warner Brothers Home Video; 1968, c2001. 1 videodisc : 143 min., sound., colour, 4 3/4 in.

In this example there is no secondary author (Kubrick is the director and producer) so this field is omitted. Where there is a date for publication and a different date for copyright, list both with the date of publication first.

  • When referencing a DVD use [ videodisc ] in the Type of Medium field. When referencing a videotape use [ videocassette]
  • Extent refers to the total number of physical pieces on which the audiovisual material appears. After Extent list the duration of the material.
  • Physical description relates to information on charactistics such as colour and size.
 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

1. Kubrick S. 2001: a space odyssey. [videodisc]. London: Warner Brothers Home Video; 1968, c2001. 1 videodisc : 143 min., sound., colour, 4 ¾ in in.

2. Kubrick S. The shining. [videodisc]. London: Warner Brothers Home Video; 1980, c2001. 1 videodisc : 115 min., sound, colour, 4 ¾ in.

3. Hopper D. Easy rider [videodisc]. Fonda P, producer. London: Colombia TriStar Home Video; 1969, c1999. 1 videodisc : 92 min., sound, colour, 4 ¾ in. 

 Reference a newspaper article using Vancouver
 Reference an online newspaper article using Vancouver
 Required elements

Online newspaper articles are cited in the same format as a print article, with the following exceptions/additions:

Author. Article Title. Newspaper Title (Edition if applicable) [Type of medium]. Date of publication  [Date of citation] : Section: Location (Column number). Availability

eg

Knapton S. Children conceived through fertility treatment more likely to have mental health issues. The Telegraph [Internet]. 2014 June 30 [Cited 2014 June 30]. Health, Health News: [about 2 screens] Available from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/10934281/Children-conceived-through-fertility-treatment-more-likely-to-have-mental-health-issues.html

Wheeler, C. Zombie generation: Fears rise for children as prescriptions for ADHD drug soar to 1m a year. Sunday Express (National ed.) [Internet]. 2014 June 29 [Cited 2014 June 30]. News. p. 8. Available from: http://www.lexisnexis.com/uk/nexis/docview/getDocForCuiReq?lni=5CJ7-PJC1-DY9P-N0NT&csi=8399&oc=00240&perma=true

  • List the authors names in the order that they appear in the text
  • Use initials for first and middle names of authors, up to a maximum of two initials
  • Do not use periods/stops between initals e.g. JB not J.B.
  • Separate names of authors using a comma and a space e.g. Woods A, Frazier BR, Jones, C
  • Use et al. for the seventh and subsequent authors
  • When referencing an online newspaper article use [Internet] in the Type of Medium field
  • List the date of publication in the order of year > month > day. e.g. 2012 Aug 1
  • Enter the Date of Citation in square brackets following the date of publication. For the Date of Citation use the order: year > month > day. eg. [cited 2014 Feb 8]
  • If a location or pagination for the article is not provided in the online version try and calculate the length of the article using the best means possible, e.g., in terms of print pages, screens, or paragraphs
  • Provide the URL or other electronic address of the article in the Availablity field (use the text "Available from" followed by a colon and a space. Then enter the full URL)
 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)


Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

1. Knapton S. Children conceived through fertility treatment more likely to have mental health issues. The Daily Telegraph [Internet]. 2014 June 30 [Cited 2014 June 30]. Health, Health News: [about 2 screens] Available from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/10934281/Children-conceived-through-fertility-treatment-more-likely-to-have-mental-health-issues.html

2. Wheeler, C. Zombie generation: Fears rise for children as prescriptions for ADHD drug soar to 1m a year. Sunday Express (National Edition) [Internet]. 2014 June 29 [Cited 2014 June 30]. News. p. 8. Available from: http://www.lexisnexis.com/uk/nexis/docview/getDocForCuiReq?lni=5CJ7-PJC1-DY9P-N0NT&csi=8399&oc=00240&perma=true

3. Smith, R. Children sent miles from home to find mental health care. The Daily Telegraph (National Edition, Edition 2) [Internet]. 2014 June 3 [Cited 2014 June 30]. News. p. 10 [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.lexisnexis.com/uk/nexis/docview/getDocForCuiReq?lni=5CBN-BHM1-JBVM-Y00T&csi=242773&oc=00240&perma=true

 Reference a print newspaper article using Vancouver
 Required elements

Author. Article Title. Newspaper Title (Edition if applicable). Date of publication: Section: Location (Column number if applicable)

eg

Hope C, Donnelly L. Renewed hope for testing drugs on dying patients; Safeguards offered by ministers give boost to Lord Saatchi's Bill to remove risk of prosecution from doctors who try experimental treatment. The Telegraph (London). 2014 June 26. News. p.4. 

  • List the authors names in the order that they appear in the text
  • Use initials for first and middle names of authors, up to a maximum of two initials
  • Do not use periods/stops between initals e.g. JB not J.B.
  • Separate names of authors using a comma and a space e.g. Woods A, Frazier BR, Jones, C
  • Use et al. for the seventh and subsequent authors
  • List the date of publication in the order of year > month > day. e.g. 2012 Aug 18
 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)


Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

1. Hope C, Donnelly L. Renewed hope for testing drugs on dying patients; Safeguards offered by ministers give boost to Lord Saatchi's Bill to remove risk of prosecution from doctors who try experimental treatment. The Telegraph (London). 2014 June 26. News. p.4. 

2. Hope C, Donnelly L. Experts back use of untested medicines; Untested drugs bill will let doctors 'play God', lawyers warn. The Telegraph (National Edition, Edition 2). 2014 June 27. News, Front Page. pp.1-2.

3. Meikle, J. Benefits of statins outweigh risks, says medicines regulator. The Guardian (Final Edition). 2014 May 31. News, Home Pages. p.12.

 Reference a paper from a conference proceeding using Vancouver
 Reference an electronic paper from an online conference proceedings using Vancouver
 Required elements

The following elements are required to reference an electronic paper from an online conference proceedings using the Vancouver style.

  • When referencing an Electronic paper use [Internet] in the Type of Medium field
  • For the Date of Citation use the order: year > month > day. eg. [cited 2014 Feb 8]
  • For the availability field use the text "Available from" followed by a colon and a space. Then enter the full URL or doi.

Where the proceedings have a title:

Authors of paper. Title of paper. In: Editors. Proceedings/Book title [Type of medium]. Conference title. Date of Conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. [Date of citation]. Pagination. Availability.

 eg.

Potyagaylo D, Segel M, Schulze WH, Dössel O. Noninvasive Localization of Ectopic Foci: A New Optimization Approach for Simultaneous Reconstruction of Transmembrane Voltages and Epicardial Potentials. In: Ourselin S, Rueckert D, Smith N, editors. Functional imaging and modeling of the heart [Internet]. 7th International Conference, FIMH 2013. June 20-22, 2013; London UK: London: Springer; 2013. [Cited 2014 June 11] pp. 166-173. Available from: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-38899-6_20

Where no separate title is given to the proceedings:

Authors of paper. Title of paper. In: Editors. Conference title [Type of medium]. Date of Conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. [Date of citation]. Pagination. Availability.

eg.

Kalju JL, Meigas K, Hinrikus H, Kaik J. System of electrically measured physiological parameters for reconstruction of heart rate. In: Lithgow B, Cosic I, editors. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Bioelectromagnetism [Internet]. February 15-18 , 1998; Melbourne, Australia: Piscataway, NJ: IEEE; 1998. [Cited 2014 June 4] pp. 153 - 154. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=666441

Where the proceedings are a special issue of a journal or part of a series:

If the proceedings are a special issue of a journal or part of a series, list this information in brackets after the pagination.

Authors of paper. Title of paper. In: Editors. Conference title [Type of medium]. Date of Conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. [Date of citation]. Pagination. (Journal title. Volume/Issue. Supplement if appropriate). Availability.

eg. 

Grinberg A, Biggs PJ, Dukkipati VS, George TT. Extensive intra-host genetic diversity uncovered in Cryptosporidium parvum using Next Generation Sequencing. In: Grinberg A, editor. Proceedings of the IV International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference [Internet]. 31 January–03 February 2012, Wellington, New Zealand. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2013 April. [Cited 2014 May 25] pp. 18–24 (Infect. Genet. Evol., Vol. 15). Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567134812002869

Wansink B, Just D, Smith L. What Is in a Name? Giving Descriptive Names to Vegetables Increases Lunchroom Sales. In: Chapman K, editor. Empowering the Nutrition Gatekeepers: From Parents to Products to Policy [Internet]. 44th Annual Conference of the Society of Nutrition Education. 23–26 July 2011, Hyatt Regency Crown Center, Kansas City, MO. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2011 July-August. [Cited 2014 May 11]. p. S1 (J Nutr. Educ. Behav., 43(4), Supplement 1). Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1499404611001084

 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  •  In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  •  Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

1. Potyagaylo D, Segel M, Schulze WH, Dössel O. Noninvasive Localization of Ectopic Foci: A New Optimization Approach for Simultaneous Reconstruction of Transmembrane Voltages and Epicardial Potentials. In: Ourselin S, Rueckert D, Smith N, editors. Functional imaging and modeling of the heart [Internet]. 7th International Conference, FIMH 2013. June 20-22, 2013; London UK: London: Springer; 2013. [Cited 2014 June 11] pp. 166-173. Available from: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-38899-6_20

2. Takeuchi A, Mori M, Kitagawa K, Shimba K, Tayakama Y, Moriguchi H et al. Autonomic nervous system driven cardiomyocytes in vitro. In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society [Internet], EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. Aug. 30 2011-Sept. 3 2011, Boston, MA. New York, NY: IEEE; 2001. [Cited 2014 May 22]. p. 1945 - 1948. Available from: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6090549

3. Grinberg A, Biggs PJ, Dukkipati VS, George TT. Extensive intra-host genetic diversity uncovered in Cryptosporidium parvum using Next Generation Sequencing. In: Grinberg A, editor. Proceedings of the IV International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference [Internet]. 31 January–03 February 2012, Wellington, New Zealand. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2013 April. [Cited 2014 May 25] pp. 18–24 (Infect. Genet. Evol., Vol. 15). Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567134812002869

 Reference a paper from a conference proceedings using Vancouver
 Required elements

The following elements are required to reference a paper from a conference proceedings using the Vancouver style.

Where the proceedings have a title:

Authors of paper. Title of paper. In: Editors. Proceedings/Book title. Conference title. Date of Conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Pagination. 

 eg.

Potyagaylo D, Segel M, Schulze WH, Dössel O. Noninvasive Localization of Ectopic Foci: A New Optimization Approach for Simultaneous Reconstruction of Transmembrane Voltages and Epicardial Potentials. In: Ourselin S, Rueckert D, Smith N, editors. Functional imaging and modeling of the heart. 7th International Conference, FIMH 2013. June 20-22, 2013; London UK: London: Springer; 2013. pp. 166-173

Where no separate title is given to the proceedings: 

Authors of paper. Title of paper. In: Editors. Conference title. Date of Conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Pagination. 

eg.

Kalju JL, Meigas K, Hinrikus H, Kaik J. System of electrically measured physiological parameters for reconstruction of heart rate. In: Lithgow B, Cosic I, editors. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Bioelectromagnetism. February 15-18 , 1998; Melbourne, Australia: Piscataway, NJ: IEEE; 1998. pp. 153 - 154

Where the proceedings are a special issue of a journal or part of a series:

If the proceedings are a special issue of a journal or part of a series, list this information in brackets after the pagination.

Authors of paper. Title of paper. In: Editors. Conference title. Date of Conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication. Pagination. (Journal title. Volume/Issue. Supplement if appropriate)

eg. 

Grinberg A, Biggs PJ, Dukkipati VS, George TT. Extensive intra-host genetic diversity uncovered in Cryptosporidium parvum using Next Generation Sequencing. In: Grinberg A, editor. Proceedings of the IV International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference. 31 January–03 February 2012, Wellington, New Zealand. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2013 April. pp. 18–24 (Infect. Genet. Evol., Vol. 15)

Wansink B, Just D, Smith L. What Is in a Name? Giving Descriptive Names to Vegetables Increases Lunchroom Sales. In: Chapman K, editor. Empowering the Nutrition Gatekeepers: From Parents to Products to Policy. 44th Annual Conference of the Society of Nutrition Education. 23–26 July 2011, Hyatt Regency Crown Center, Kansas City, MO. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2011 July-August. p. S1 (J Nutr. Educ. Behav., 43(4), Supplement 1)

 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  •  In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)

Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  •  Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

1. Potyagaylo D, Segel M, Schulze WH, Dössel O. Noninvasive Localization of Ectopic Foci: A New Optimization Approach for Simultaneous Reconstruction of Transmembrane Voltages and Epicardial Potentials. In: Ourselin S, Rueckert D, Smith N, editors. Functional imaging and modeling of the heart. 7th International Conference, FIMH 2013. June 20-22, 2013; London UK: London: Springer; 2013. pp. 166-173

2. Takeuchi A, Mori M, Kitagawa K, Shimba K, Tayakama Y, Moriguchi H et al. Autonomic nervous system driven cardiomyocytes in vitro. In: Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. Aug. 30 2011-Sept. 3 2011, Boston, MA. New York, NY: IEEE; 2001. p. 1945 - 1948

3. Grinberg A, Biggs PJ, Dukkipati VS, George TT. Extensive intra-host genetic diversity uncovered in Cryptosporidium parvum using Next Generation Sequencing. In: Grinberg A, editor. Proceedings of the IV International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference. 31 January–03 February 2012, Wellington, New Zealand. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2013 April. pp. 18–24 (Infect. Genet. Evol., Vol. 15) 

 Reference a report using Vancouver
 Reference an electronic report using Vancouver
 Required elements

Authors (Affiliation if applicable). Title [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [Date of Citation]. Pagination. Report number (if applicable). Availability

Eg.

Arkes J, Pacula RL, Paddock S, Caulkins JP, Reuter P (RAND Drug Policy Research Center, Santa Monica, CA). Technical report for the price and purity of illicit drugs: 1981 through the second quarter of 2003 [Internet]. Washington: Executive Office of the President (US), Office of National Drug Control Policy; 2004 Nov [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 83 p.Contract No.: DHHS 282-00-0016. Report No.: NCJ 207769. Available from: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/price_purity_tech_rpt/price_purity_tech_rpt.pdf

  • When referencing an Electronic report use [Internet] in the Type of Medium field
  • For the Date of Citation use the order: year > month > day. eg. [cited 2014 Feb 8]
  • For the availability field use the text "Available from" followed by a colon and a space. Then enter the full URL.
  • List the authors names in the order that they appear in the text
  • Use initials for first and middle names of the authors, up to a maximum of two initials
  • Do not use periods/stops between initals. JB not J.B.
  • Separate names of authors using a comma and a space. eg. Woods A, Frazier BR, Jones, C
  • If there are a large number of authors, use et al. for the seventh and subsequent authors.
  • Where there are no named authors, use the name of the issuing organisation as the author.

Examples:

Organisation as the author (no report number):

Department of Health. Protecting Health and Care Information: A consultation on proposals to introduce new Regulations [Internet]. London: Department of Health. 2014 June [Cited 2014 June 30]. p.28. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/323967/Consultation_document.pdf

Organisation as the author (with report number):

United States General Accounting Office. Vaccines for children: critical issues in design and implementation [Internet]. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office. 1994 July [Cited 2014 July 17]. p. 26. GAO/PEMD-94-28. Available from: http://www.gao.gov/assets/220/219957.pdf

 In the text

Cite your sources by using a number in brackets in the text which links with the relevant reference in the reference list at the end of the document :

  • In a 2008 study Neelam (1) ...
  • Glaser argued ...(2)


Any subsequent citation of the same source should use the same reference number:

  • Neelam and colleagues found (1)...

Page numbers can be added to the citation to distinguish between references to the same source: (2: 45).

 In the reference list

The entries in the reference list or bibliography should be arranged in numerical order relating to the citation in the text:

1. Arkes J, Pacula RL, Paddock S, Caulkins JP, Reuter P (RAND Drug Policy Research Center, Santa Monica, CA). Technical report for the price and purity of illicit drugs: 1981 through the second quarter of 2003 [Internet]. Washington: Executive Office of the President (US), Office of National Drug Control Policy; 2004 Nov [cited 2006 Nov 3]. 83 p.Contract No.: DHHS 282-00-0016. Report No.: NCJ 207769. Available from: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/

2. United States General Accounting Office. Vaccines for children: critical issues in design and implementation [Internet]. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office. 1994 July [Cited 2014 July 17]. p. 26. GAO/PEMD-94-28. Available from: http://www.gao.gov/assets/220/219957.pdf

3. Department of Health. Protecting Health and Care Information: A consultation on proposals to introduce new Regulations [Internet]. London: Department of Health. 2014 June [Cited 2014 June 30]. p.28. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/323967/Consultation_document.pdf



Further examples of using Vancouver can be found on the  NLM Style Guide

Vancouver style uses abbreviated journal titles, e.g. Arch Opthalmol for Archives of Opthalmology.
See the 
NLM Abbreviations Guide  for details on standard abbreviations.